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सोमवार, 23 जून 2014

chaupal charcha: jammu-kashmir article 370 -sanjiv

चौपाल चर्चा:
जम्मू-कश्मीर और अनुच्छेद ३७० 
संजीव 
*
भारत की स्वतंत्रता के समय भारतीय स्वतंत्रता अधिनियम १९४७ के अनुसार भारतीय रियासतों को छूट थी कि वे भारत या पाकिस्तान में से जिसके साथ चाहें विलय करें या दोनों में से किसी से विलय न कर स्वतंत्र रहें। कश्मीर, हैदराबाद तथा जूनागढ़ को छोड़कर शेष रियासतों ने अधिमिलन पत्र हस्ताक्षरित कर भारत के साथ मिलन स्वीकार कर लिया। जूनागढ़ की जनता ने नवाब से विद्रोह कर भारत में विलय की घोषणा कर दी तो नवाब पाकिस्तान भाग गया। हैदराबाद में जनता भारत  चाहती थी जबकि नवाब पाकिस्तान में। तब सरदार पटेल ने सैन्य कार्यवाही कर जनता के चाहे अनुसार नवाब को भारत में विलय स्वीकारने हेतु बाध्य कर दिया।

जम्मू-कश्मीर के एक भाग में मुस्लिम जनसँख्या अधिक थी तो दूसरे में हिंदू, राजा हिन्दू तो वज़ीर मुसलमान। मुसलमान वज़ीर शेख अब्दुल्ला तथा जनता भारत में विलय के पक्ष में थे, पाकिस्तान मुस्लिम आबादी का आधार लेकर अपना दावा कर रहा था, जबकि महाराज हरिसिंह स्वतंत्र देश के रूप में रहना चाहते थे। पाकिस्तान ने अनिश्चितता का लाभ उठाने की नियत से फ्रोंटियर के पठानों को शस्त्र देकर कश्मीर पर हमलाकर कब्ज़ा करने के लिए भेजा। अपना बचाव करने में असमर्थ होकर २६-१०-१९४७ को महाराज ने भारत सरकार के पास विलय पत्र भेजा।

महाराज तथा भारत सरकार के बीच वार्ता में महाराजा ने जनप्रतिनिधियों के सहयोग से उत्तरदायी सरकार बनाकर वयस्क मताधिकार के आधार पर चुनाव कराना तथा कश्मीरी संविधान निर्माण हेतु विधान सभा बनाना स्वीकार कर ५-३-१९४८ को उद्घोषणा जारी की।महाराज के स्थान सत्तासीन युवराज कर्णसिंह ने २५-११-१९४९ को एक उद्घोषणा जारी की जिसके आधार पर संविधान के भाग २१ में अनुच्छेद ३७० अस्थायी संक्रमणकालीन और विशेष उपबंध सम्मिलित कर  ने जम्मू-कश्मीर को विशेष दर्ज़ा दिया है। इसके अनुसार अनुच्छेद २३८ के उपबंध जम्मू-कश्मीर में लागू नहीं होंगे। इस राज्य के सम्बन्ध में भारत की कानून बनाने की शक्ति उन विषयों तक सीमित होगी जिनको राष्ट्रपति राज्य सरकार से परामर्श कर अधिमिलन पत्र में निर्दिष्ट ऐसे विषय के रूप घोषित कर दे उक्त जिस पर भारत कानून बना सकता है। 

अतः संसद को जम्मू -कश्मीर के सम्बन्ध में स्वरक्षा, यातायात, मुद्रा (सिक्का) तथा विदेश नीति के सम्बन्ध में ही कानून बनाने का अधिकार है. अन्य विषयों पर कानून कश्मीर सरकार की सहमति से ही बनाया जा सकता है। राष्ट्रपति ने संविधान जम्मू-कश्मीर में प्रभावशील होने का आदेश १९५० में जारी तथा १९५४ में परिवर्तित किया। अनुच्छेद २४६ के अनुसार अवशिष्ट शक्तियाँ संसद को नहीं कश्मीर विधान सभा को है। 

इस अनुच्छेद के सम्बन्ध में सर्वोच्च न्यायालय द्वारा विविध वादों में निर्गत निर्णयों के अनुसार यह अनुच्छेद अस्थायी है किन्तु इसे राज्य विधान सभा की सहमति से ही समाप्त किया जा सकता है। 

इसी अनुच्छेद में गुजरात, महाराष्ट्र, नागालैंड, सिक्किम मिजोरम आदि सम्बन्धी विशेष उपबंधों की चर्चा है 

14 टिप्‍पणियां:

Shivani Batra ने कहा…

Shivani Batra
Why Article 370 must go
Article 370 was bought into Part XXI (Temporary, Transitional and Special Provisions) of the Constitution but it mocks the concept of "One India from Kashmir to Kanyakumari". The Article, which was meant to be temporary, grants a special status to Jammu & Kashmir (J&K) and was included in the Constitution at the behest of Jawaharlal Nehru, primarily to satisfy his ego. Consider some of the salient features of this political fraud.

1. Laws made by the Indian Parliament are not applicable in J&K unless ratified by the state government. Doesn't this undermine the authority of the Indian government?

2. J&K has its own constitution, flag and dual citizenship for residents. Even the fundamental rights of the J&K resident are different from that of other Indian citizens.

3. The President of India has no power to suspend the J&K state government even in case of an emergency.

4. Most central laws like Right to Education (RTE), Right to Information (RTI), provisions related to CAG audit, fiscal laws like Finance Act 1994 (related to service tax), wealth tax and so on are not applicable to J&K.

5. No outsider can own property in J&K but Kashmiris can buy property anywhere in the country.

6. If a Kashmiri woman marries an outsider then she loses her citizenship but it doesn't apply if a man marries an outsider. Isn't this a gross violation of women's rights?

This provision of the Constitution has created a wave of separatism and failed to achieve its objective. This Article could be repealed either through a constitutional amendment or Presidential notification. The technical requirement of a recommendation by the Constituent Assembly of Jammu & Kashmir before issuing the notification no longer applies since the constituent assembly no longer exists. The next government should make every effort to abolish this law.

Mandar Walvekar ने कहा…

Mandar Walvekar (Expert I.T. Consultant)
Correctly said. We should have no laws supporting seperatism and against unity. Even today, when we visit Kashmir, people there have no affection to rest of the India. They are just looking at rest of Indians 'Money spending tourist !'. They casually say 'India me aisa hota hai !'. They do not treat themselves as Indians ? Why ? And why the hell then are we pumping Crorees of rupees to them from the taxpayers of entire India ? There must be a strong message, Unite with Entire India without any special status ! Come at Par with all ! Honour the constitution.

NR SUPARNA ने कहा…

NR SUPARNA (Management Consultant)
shivaniji:
Not that simple. If u repeal 370, it is bound to be challenged in the supreme court.Besides, while Constituent Assembly was dissolved(evidently after its purpose of drafting the constitution was completed), now we have a J&K Constitution which is at variance with our constitution at a number of places. So what happens to this J&K constitution? Will get abrogated/suspended? I think not. The spirit of 370, was to take the views of the State. The mechanism thought off at that juncture was Constituent Assemble. We now have an elected State legislature...don't u need to take their opinion if the constituent assembly stands dissolved? Supreme court may even say- re constitute the body. Or get it okayed by J&K Assembly. If the Parliament's action is stayed, where are you?
Instead diluting 370 systematically may be a better strategy..Nehru said in the parliament " 370 Ghiste Ghiste Ghis Jaayega"".

When 370 becomes irrelevant, that is the time to align the J&K constitution with that of India..1)in making the life 5 yrs instead of 6.
2) Making the oath of allegiance same
3) Dis respect to National flag is crime
etc., etc.,
It cannot be in the mouth of any J&K politician to say NO to RTE, RTI, Nrega, Food security Act....when these r incorporated, things wd change.That means wait for some more time...the other option can be stayed by Supreme Court.

best
suparna

Shiv Vaid ने कहा…

Shiv Vaid
We may wait till present president Sh Mukherjee completes his term and BJP get president of his choice. Then, it would be easy for the government to take appropriate action. But this has to be scraped.

NR SUPARNA ने कहा…

NR SUPARNA (Management Consultant)
Shiv Vaid/Mandar/Shivani:
u r right, we wait...but logic is not correct. regardless of who is the president he is bound by the cabinet's resolution in so far as Ordinance is concerned or in the case of Bills passed by both houses, he is bound to sign.
We need to wait because the clause (2) in 370 is loaded against us..it refers to C-Assembly, which was dissolved once J&K Constitution was passed. Any hurried repeal will leave J&K constitution hanging in the Trishanku, Courts will stay the repeal, as violating the letter and spirit of clause (2). Yes we have blundered, whoever was the author-Nehru or Ayyangar or Patel(for piloting it in constituent assembly against the wishes of ambedkar) or Hari singh or Karan Singh....we need to start from there...spending energy on finger pointing is useless.We are a constiututional democracy and Sec 368. which is an omnibus, all empowering clause for amend, repeal change drop any clause, the spirit of the constitution and the language of 370 is really against a rash decision like repealing 370. It is bound to be stayed by supreme court; with egg on BJP's face, imagine their chances of connecting with an already alienated populace.
As for spending money on J&K, I am surprised...would you not protect if u had real estate... we shd take it that way... some 40 000 sq Km or some thing like that...wont u pay for security and stuff...we need to look at that...these things cannot be only looked at budgetary support et al. Sure, if we could develop the state well, it would be a Jannat as Jehangir pointed out.
There is too much of emotional outburst on this subject without looking at the objective reality... say what we may about Congress... they knew the difficulties and chosen the path of attrition. In deed, the autonomy that J&K enjoyed in 1956 and today, there is a good deal of difference. Don't forget, we jailed Sheik Abdullah for many many years(close to 20 yrs) in Kodai canal in TN...played around with election mechanism under Indira, AFSPA, changed the title from Prime minister to Chief Minister, the list is endless. To undo all that needs time and considerable dialogue. Repeal of 370 is just not it.
Best
suparna

V. Raghunatha Sharma ने कहा…

V. Raghunatha Sharma (Retired Nationalised Bank Officer (Sr Mgt))
Why people are claiming that even a talk or discussion of article 370 will detach Kashmir from India? Why is this hulla gulla by congressmen as the issue is the brain child of Nehru. Most significantly this article was opposed by none other than Dr B R Ambedkar who refused to draft this article and did not participate on the debate and the questions were answered by Sri Gopalaswamy Ayyangar-the author of this article.

Srikumar Hariharan ने कहा…

Srikumar Hariharan
Besides, Article 370 was originally envisaged only as a temporary arrangement. High time v flushed it.

V. Raghunatha Sharma ने कहा…

V. Raghunatha Sharma (Retired Nationalised Bank Officer (Sr Mgt))
Article 1 of the Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir states that the State of Jammu and Kashmir is and shall be an integral part of the Union of India. What does this mean? Even the Indira-Shaikh accord on kashmir also Reiterates this point

NR SUPARNA ने कहा…

NR SUPARNA (Management Consultant)
That is the strongest argument going for Govt of India...yet we have let some states more equal than rest thru legislation. That needs to be undone appropriately.

Srikumar Hariharan ने कहा…

Srikumar Hariharan
LET US CUT THE GORDIAN KNOT OF ARTICLE 370 WITH A NATIONAL REFERENDUM IN EACH & EVERY INDIAN STATE & ALSO IN KASHMIR! Let us thus make a 100% democratically correct national decision & also execute it asap, so none may complain afterwards! Let us, eg, ask the following questions: 1. Do u want Article 370 to stay? 2. Do you want Article 370 to go & Kashmir made a pucca Indian state, with all due rights & responsibilities? The option must be to tick & choose either 1 or 2. But, before the referendum is carried out, let us thoroughly inform each & every citizen in all our Indian states & Kashmir what actually happened in Kashmir & how it negatively impacts our India & Indians in general & Kashmiris in particular! Let the verdict of all the citizens of India thereby become the final & irrevocable decision regarding this matter of vital national importance today!

Srikumar Hariharan ने कहा…

Srikumar Hariharan
WHILE V ANY WAY R DISCUSSING ARTICLE 370, WHY DON'T V DISCUSS THE FOUNTAIN-HEAD & ROOT CAUSE OF THE ENTIRE PROBLEM & THEIR POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS, TOO? It is very crystal clear now that v Indians have been taken for a ride by our anti-India & anti-indian politicians JL Nehru, MA Jinnah, Sheikh Abdullah & all those who came after them. A puny rogue nation like Pakistan bullies us regularly only due to one single reason: they know that they can afford to, as our leaders 1947-2014 & armed forces have not been strong enough to stop them. But, now that v have Modiji, a true patriot, as our leader, things must change asap. Nehru duped us into giving Pakistan - read & get shocked! - 40% of our best land, including some of our most prosperous towns, even though our Muslim sisters & brothers were less than 10% of the population in 1947! India is the most densely populated nation on earth & v need more living space for our citizens. It is creating lots of problems for us Indians, where as the Pakistani brothers & sisters do not need so much land. Y waste land like that? Besides, Kashmir - all of it - belongs to India & India alone. So, here is a realistic & effective solution for the best of everybody: Let us Indians organize at least 75 divisions of the best-equipped, trained & most modern army in the world, with a matching navy & air-force to support it, if & when necessary! (V r now talking about making our Indian defence & defence industries no 1 in the world. It is going to be very expensive; but lack of it will be a trillion times even more expensive & fatal. Mind! How to finance it? By retrieving the multi-trillion loot stashed away at home & abroad. V need actually only a very small portion of it for this defence project. Thereby v can also solve many main problems like the lack of a potent deterrent to guarantee the safety, security, welfare & existence of our nation & its citizens, drastically ameliorate/solve our huge unemployment, end all bullying forever from rogue nations like China, Pakistan & other terrorists plaguing us 24-7 today etc etc. What a wonderful contribution to everlasting world peace it will be from our India, which is totally committed to foster & sustain world peace & harmony! Imagine!) After that, let us request Pakistan to return the 30% excess land they got through the ruse & deceit of Nehru! If they don't comply with our request, let us order our armed forces to do their job, by pushing them back & retrieve the 30% that is legally, morally & politically ours! Also annex all of Kashmir! (Let us also retrieve the huge chunk of land lost in Ladakh by Nehru & his anti-India & anti-Indian descendants the same way! Surely the Chinese have no need for so much usurped land! Believe me, nobody will dare say a word or do anything against India, if we do this, as suggested. Guaranteed!) Let there be some justice at last also for us Indians on this earth!

S K Ganapathi Rao ने कहा…

S K Ganapathi Rao
I THINK YOU ALL HEARD ME SHOUTING WHAT I SAID.
THANKS FOR YOUR NICE WAY OF PUTTING MY SHOUT.

Yogander Singh ने कहा…

Yogander Singh
All that is old hat! The Article became redundant the day J&K Constituent Assembly approved merger with Indian Union.

sanjiv verma 'salil' ने कहा…

अनुच्छेद ३७० को समाप्त या परिवर्तित करना नहीं आसान है. अब संविधान सभा नहीं है. इसका गठन राजनैतिक विवाद और मतभेद पैदा करेगा। गठन के बाद कश्मीर के पहले अन्य राज्यों के असंतुष्ट भारत से अलगाव की बात कर उन राज्यों के सवाल उठायेंगे। कश्मीर सरकार गठन को लेकर न्यायालय जाएगी। राष्ट्रपति तथा राज्य सभा इस बिंदु पर क्या रुख अपनाएंगे? ३७० के प्रावधान ज-क विधान सभा की सहमति से लागू हुए। बदलाव या समापन के लिये ज-क विधानसभा तथा संसद के दोनों सदनों के अधिवेशन में दो तिहाई मत से प्रस्ताव पारित होना जरूरी होगा। अभी आंकड़ा इसके पक्ष में नहीं है। कांग्रेस, समाजवादी, बहुजन समाजवादी, आर. जे डी., साम्यवादी, तृणमूल आदि विरोध में होंगे। भाजपा, शिवसेना, अकाली आदि अपनी दम पर पारित नहीं करा सकते।
आतंरिक असंतोष का लाभ पाकिस्तान और आतंकवादी उठायेंगे। अभी जिन पाकिस्तान परास्त या कश्मीर की स्वाधीनता का सपना देखनेवाले राजनैतिक समूहों की कोई वकत नहीं है वे जान भावनाओं को भड़काकर कश्मीर को भारत से काटने का षड्यंत्र करेंगे। जनमत संग्रह की मांग उठायेगा। इसलिए मसले में हड़बड़ी न करना बेहतर है।
सबसे पहले राष्ट्रपति चुनाव में ऐसे व्यक्ति को राष्ट्रपति बनाना होगा जो ३७० का विरोधी हो. राज्य सभा में सत्ता पक्ष का बहुमत बनाना होगा, कुछ दलों को साथ में जोड़ना होगा ताकि दोनों सदनों के संयुक्त सत्र में दो तिहाई बहुमत हो जाए। भाजपा को ज-क आधार बनाना होगा, संभव हो तो अगले चुनाव में सरकार बनाये या सरकार में सम्मिलित हो। यदि ३७० को समाप्त करने या बदलने का प्रस्ताव ज-क विधान सभा से पारित होकर केंद्र को मिले और उस पर संसद की मुहर लगे तो यह आदर्श स्थिति होगी और तब चुनौती मिलने पर सर्वोच्च न्यायलय में इसे बचाया जा सकेगा।